“The universe is not required to be in perfect harmony with human ambition.” We covered this topic in great detail in episode 408 of Astronomy Cast, so if you want hear more from Dr. Pamela Gay, click here and watch the show. One possible cause: Massive structures outside the observable universe exerting gravitational influence. so do photons (only while moving {no rest mass} which is going to be a hard one to measure given their speed and linear orientation through the Higgs field, however in a circular course {like around a black hole} their mass should be measurable)! Imagine an empty container. This is like a problem with real numbers. So an answer is not really given. This comment section is “fixed’ worse than the GOP nominating process. ☆ What is Outside the Universe ?!? So like bubbles we may pop or merge into a giant bubble. In other words we are all sort of projectors projecting our ideas of reality and these collective ideas actually make up the universe. You know almost everything about the ocean. But what is the Universe expanding into ? Also, the actual universe is much much much bigger than the observable universe. It is that which is waiting to be filled with something, as of volume. The speed of light is just that — a speed — and the universe … Pair formation of 1.0216 MeV gammarays (“the creation operator”) should be adequate to populate the universe with matter given enough time, as the 13.8 billion year limit would not apply in this case. Join our 836 patrons! if you do think that there is something outside the universe then it would probably be an over/underworld if you look from the religous side of things. Each universe is sort of like a soap bubble embedded in the cosmic void of the multiverse, expanding from its own Big Bang. We kinda want this to be the right answer, because if parallel universes really do exist, shit's about to get so weird. It is able to be anywhere: in the human body and outside of it. Yet, we will continue to accelerate to the margins, under the gravitational pull (in our hollow, cavitary sphere), and ultimately merge with and into the stuff (energy, photons, hnu, however you’d like to define it) that exists there (which may also be occurring and may actually be responsible for some of the information gathered by COBE as some of our particulate matter gets consumed by the margins.). Namely densely packed photons of all wavelengths and energies. True nothing can not exist. Also, where does this heat go at the peripheries? Astronomers think space outside of the observable universe might be an infinite expanse of what we see in the cosmos around us, distributed pretty much the same as it is in the observable universe. That leads to the question of “What kind of motion produces (defines) what kind of space or time?” That may sound kind of silly, but you are already familiar with one aspect of this: motion at very high speeds slows down the passage of time. Electrons and positrons have mass and from the formula for conversion of mass and energy, Ta Da! What is outside the Universe ? If you go in any one direction long enough, you just return to your starting point. The complete collapse of the cavitary bubble with our continued acceleration towards the margins will eventually result in the consumption and ultimate reduction of all matter back into their constituent photons and dissipation of the bubble probably back into another high energy state singularity as the margins crash into one another that requires resolution into a lower energy state via another cavitary, shock wave explosion. Albert Einstein, US (German-born) physicist (1879 – 1955). Pair formation of 1.0216 MeV gammarays (“the creation operator”) should be adequate to populate the universe with matter given enough time, as the 13.8 billion year limit would not apply in this case. Go farther. But “infinity” means that, beyond the observable universe, you won’t just find more planets and stars and other forms of material…you will eventually find every possible thing. “If you go in any one direction long enough, you just return to your starting point” Or 26 and unicorn dreams? So that’s a given, but it’s also a philosophical and subjective opinion, because frankly we still don’t know what could exactly qualify as life. Unfortunately, since we can’t see it or measure it, we don’t know what lies beyond the bounds of the observable universe. That means that our observable universe is some 93 billion light-years wide (give or take a few light-years). But if we looked inside either one, we’d actually see a mess of random wires … To put it another way, a theoretical outside observer looking at our universe would only detect an infinitesimally small singularity (and even though there is no outside to our universe, there is no reason why an infinite number of singularities couldn’t exist; each with its own universe of continuously unfolding time and space within). However, hang on a second, this might actually be science. Pair formation of 1.0216 MeV gammarays (“the creation operator”) should be adequate to populate the universe with matter given enough time, as the 13.8 billion year limit would not apply in this case. Thing. I know it sounds far out, but no more far out that multi-universes, in my opinion. What IS space? 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