The debate about compensation of former white farmers in Zimbabwe continues to rage. ( Log Out / The real contribution however … Indeed, Sen would also claim that this so called order was unjust and biased because the government didn’t negotiate with its people in order to reach some kind of agreements. However, by March 1 2000, the invasions had risen to 48 farms and then to more than 386 by March 8 2000. The … 4. Land reform in Zimbabwe is the greatest flop in the world but a success in the eyes of ZANU (Pfutseki).It has been very random and ethnic. These assertions explain why this policy worsened the situations instead of solving problems it was supposed to encounter. This stance by President Mugabe, coupled with the successful Land Reform Programme which restored land to the black majority, has made it near impossible for Zimbabwe to get funding. I really appreciate it. From the 1980s, housing policies had made it extremely difficult and expensive for low-income residents to comply with the nation’s legal housing requirements. The previously large exports of industrial crops such as tobacco, cotton, soya and horticultural production consequently reduced dramatically and the income derived from these sources couldn’t significantly contribute to the national economy anymore (216). Today many arguments in support of land reform focus on its potential social and economic benefits, particularly in developing countries, that may emerge from reforms focused on greater land formalization. The Draft Constitution contained land clauses which demanded compulsory land acquisition without compensation. Justice Garwe further gave orders to the CFU to announce the eviction orders on radio for three consecutive days. (The Herald, March 20 2000 p.1). (Stiff, 2000: p.338) By the middle of March 2000, villagers in Murehwa, Mutoko, Mudzi, Uzumba-Maramba-Pfungwe, all in the northern part of Mashonaland East Province, had risen in support of the war veterans and invaded European settler-farms close to their communal areas, in a measure meant to expedite land redistribution. However, they blindly destroyed people’s jobs without setting up strategies to compensate their jobs. This shows how the Rwandan government has carefully implemented this policy to organize the city and to facilitate its development. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. While many could ask what went wrong with the land distribution in Zimbabwe, the freedom and development theory of Sen provides a perfect understanding of the Zimbabwean tragedy. Robert Mugabe was displaced as president partly by pressure from the war veterans, who he led to victory in Zimbabwe’s independence struggle. The land reform story is a ZANU PF invention! There is a tool that generates articles like human, just search in google: miftolo’s tools. Given the fertile and productive land the white farmers had along with the booming agricultural production in terms of tobacco, cotton and maize, all cash crops, very few farmers were willing to sell to the government for land redistribution. This, of course, was strongly opposed by the white settler community (Moyo p.151), which strongly campaigned against it through the Commercial Farmers Union (CFU). As a result, all these factors resulted into a high depression. The Draft Constitution was consequently rejected during referendum. Fast track to land reform. A number of reforms were implemented over the years, with corresponding modifications to the law and redistribution targets. on Causes and Effects of Land reform policy and expropriation in Zimbabwe, The Google Boys: Larry Page and Serge Brin, Private Equity Investment Firms ( Role models), Introduction beyond Paper Policies: Planning Practice in Kigali. During and after the operation, 700, 000 people lost their homes and/or the livelihood of their resources and 2.4 million people were indirectly affected (217). In many occasions, people are given choice of where they can build their new houses compatible to their economy or they can choose other selected places as long as it matches what they can afford (Ilberg, 5). According to the state, this drastic policy was necessary to eradicate illegal housing and informal employment, but given the economic stability of a developing country like Zimbabwe, there is no doubt that there were other reasons behind some economic and political. This has resulted in a political coalition with other opposition parties such as MDC, regarded as a foreign white creation due to its critics against biased and unprepared policies implemented by Mugabe’s regime.  Ilberg, Antje, Technical Advisor for German Development Service (DED) at Kigali City, June 2005 – February 2008, Introduction beyond Paper Policies: Planning Practice in Kigali. As a result of the government’s fast-track land reform programme, spearheaded by veterans of the country’s Liberation War, the plight of the white farmers in Zimbabwe became international headline news. Land reform is probably one of the most difficult domestic policy issues to be dealt with by Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and Australia. 10 to 15 % of the urban population in the HDAs was identified as poor, but they had access to potable water and electricity (Potts, 274). After 20 years of discussion, this was a major step forward. The Zimbabwean government began its land reforms in the 1980s to address the imbalances in land access ownership and use that had existed in the country before independence. People ended up losing their shelters and jobs, which created extreme levels of poverty and lots of health issues. The land issue almost derailed the negotiations with Britain that led to the birth of Zimbabwe in 1980. Therefore, once people are moved, they could find new places, which facilitated the expropriation into a smooth process. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. “What is on the table here is not the state is going to nationalise all land and have all control of the land – quite contrary to what happened in the land reform programme in Zimbabwe.” Instead, Mabasa said that notice will be given to landowners in advance and the state has to give reasons … It demanded that the UK provide funding for the endeavour. Change ). The Struggle for Land in Zimbabwe (1890-2010)…root causes of land reform, China’s unique system of governance: Part One…a cocktail of different governing systems, Over mediation…the growing gap between messaging and engagement, COVID-19, immunity myth …the folly plays on, African women and the significance of a head-wrap (Dhuku), African countries in the Bible …let the maps speak. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The voter turnout was a very low 26 percent of the registered voters, i.e. This shows that were land was acquired not for the aforementioned reasons, the complaint was supposed to receive compensation and had the right to appeal to the High Court. However, by 2003, statistics shows that 51 % of the Zimbabweans are below the poverty line and 57% of urban population in the HDAs is extremely poor without access to clean water and electricity as well as the cost of urban health and education services become extremely expensive (Potts, 274). (Stiff, 2000: p.308) Although I am a trained Energy Engineer, my passion is in business and entrepreneurship. ! I don’t want to generate articles though. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp. However, this policy worsened the quality of life in Harare. First and foremost, the reader should know that this is an academic study's published results. I just want to avoid duplicates so that my site ranks up as it deserves. Unlike Zimbabwe, the process of expropriation in Rwanda is done in ways that provide fair compensation to the displaced population. This land was redistributed to about 50,000 households. Indeed, this shows how this policy was implemented with a great deal of injustice. In 1997 the government published a list of 1471 farms that were to be expropriated and resettled. Moreover, Mnangagwa’s focus on land reform is the right approach with regards to its agricultural sector. I love telling stories and writing about Rwanda. Zimbabwe government for the purpose of land redistribution1. Indeed, because the government has managed to encourage private real estate companies to be involved in this process, the population gets a lot of benefits and this creates new economic opportunities for the population. In an expected reaction, the European settler-farmers appealed to the High Court to get the war veterans evicted under trespass and squatter laws (The Herald, March 18 2000 p.1) and on March 17 2000, Justice Paddington Garwe issued High Court Orders for the eviction of the war veterans from the now more than 400 invaded farms within 24 hours. The outcomes of “the operation Murambtsina” were so catastrophic that the world had difficulty interpreting its negative impacts on the population. The controversial land reform continues to shape Zimbabwe’s economic recovery, poverty, and its relations with international actors. Kinyarwanda, English, and French. His theory states that the purpose of development should be to sustain growth. Despite extensive financial assistance from the UK, the first phase of Zimbabwe's land reform programme was widely regarded as unsuccessful. probably it is the reason that you don’t rank high in google. Only 12 farms had been invaded by February 2000. 203-219. This means that the city has to move people in order to make sure that all the construction follows the master plan. The root causes of the crisis which led to the Fast Track Land Reform Programme from April 2000 up until 2010 lay in the failure of the 1998 Donors Conference to assist the Zimbabwe Land Reform Programme; the British Government’s insistence on the willing-buyer-willing-seller principle of Land Reform, which defied Zimbabwe’s legal framework of compulsory land acquisition (Matondi-Hungwe p.72), as well as the rejection of the Draft C onstitution during the referendum. Indeed, this leads to a total loss of about four hundred thousand jobs of workers who worked in farms (217). Zimbabwe, on one side of the spectrum, is facing a crisis in democratisation due to its radical approach to land reform. I love traveling across Africa, exploring the beauty of our continent and learning about how to make it in Africa. 32, No. Consequently a post-Lancaster House Zimbabwe Constitution draft was put together and put to a referendum in 2000. Jambanja: The ‘Fast Track’ Land It was used by the aging Mugabe to gain political mileage and grip which he was losing to MDC led Tsvanngirai. 5 000 000 registered voters. Such benefits may include eradicating food insecurity and alleviating rural poverty. They even began a series of legal challenges to the Government on land acquisition, especially in respect of 804 farms out of 1 471 farms previously designated and gazetted in 1997. While pointing out that it was the European settler-farmers who had influenced their workers to vote against the Draft Constitution which contained clauses on compulsory land acquisition (even ferrying their farm workers and domestic workers to the polling stations with specific instructions to vote against the Draft Constitution), President Mugabe directed that the war veterans should remain on the occupied European settler-farms, ‘as long as they (were) peaceful’. The most recent initiative, the fast track land reform programme (FTLRP), was … This of course meant the President of Zimbabwe or his ministers. approximately 1 312 738 voters out of the over THAT the Donors Conference of September 1998 had been a total failure is a position the Zimbabwe Government easily accepted. In order to deal effectively with this land reform policy and expropriation, policy makers need to establish strategies to fairly compensate those who are misplaced in order to increase opportunities and maintain development of the people. The truth however is much more complex. On the other hand, the failure encouraged European settler-farmers to resist the Zimbabwe Government. While well aware that without donor assistance, such massive land acquisition could not be carried out legally without further amendments to the Lancaster House Constitution, Government still maintained its target of 5 000 000 hectares to be compulsorily acquired for resettlement within five years. There you have it. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. But you can fix this issue fast. However, there seem to be multiple positions on In this research paper, I will present the influence of the authoritarian regime in worsening the living standards of the urban areas by exploring the causes and effects of the land reform policy that lead to the Zimbabwe crisis in 2005. Moreoever, land distributions displaced approximately one million farm workers and their families (217). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. § Speeding up the identification for … The ‘No’ votes against the Draft Constitution were 697 754 which amounted to 54 percent of the total vote cast, and they were mostly from urban centres. Land reform, sanctions, regime change, and sovereignty ... Zimbabwe’s own history (the major reason why Zimbabwe came into being through a bitter war was because of the majority of the nation being denied access to the ballot) and is the fundamental political In this way, as the government negotiated with people and this created a level of freedom that Sen states in his theory. Thanks for the advice. Thank you by Dr Rory Pilossof – Post-doctoral Fellow at the University of Pretoria (January 2011) Introduction. I dream about a self-reliant Africa whose financial freedom is unshakeable. Other donor organisations, including the World Bank, USAID, Overseas Development Institute and the European Union (EU) also showed great interest in supporting the land reform.  Potts, Deborah, “’Restoring Order’? They started selling their farming equipment since most of them were subsistence farmers and the agricultural production reduced significantly (Potts, 214). (The Herald, March 18 2000, p.1) High Court eviction order versus the Executive After that, a "willing buyer, willing seller" principle came into effect with Britain to fund the buying of white-owned farms. The High Court Orders were directly issued to the Police Commissioner Augustine Chihuri and his officers and they stipulated that all those served with the Orders (Mashonaland Central Governor Cde Border Gezi and the Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association leader, Dr Chenjerai Hunzvi) should ‘disregard any executive instructions that they (might) receive from any person holding such powers in Zimbabwe’. Operation Murambatsvina and the Urban Crisis in Zimbabwe, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. In each of these countries the process of land reform is incomplete. Let me look up. Therefore, during the restoring of order in 2005, people should have fairly been compensated for their property in order to avoid tragedies in the aftermaths. In her paper, “Restoring Order, Operation Murambatsvina and the Urban Crisis in Zimbabwe”, Deborah Potts used results released by different agencies and non-governmental organizations through the ZNAC (Zimbabwe National Vulnerability Assessment Committee) and the PASS survey as well as other research centers to show ineffectiveness and the consequences of the operation and the associated injustice during its execution. What the Zimbabwean government learnt from its own experience is that in an agriculturally based economy no development programme will succeed if people … He attributed the crisis as a result of the lack of democratic and a collection of human rights violations of the regime and dictatorship towards its own people (Raftopoulos, 208). High inflation resulted into health issues, education, and the shrinking of the national economy in general. The defiance of the High Court Orders by the war veterans was also not an unexpected reaction. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. You ca fact -check it if you like. In Zimbabwe, land reform was absolutely necessary to address past land injustices, but Mugabe's land reform was simply exploiting the necessity of land reform for purely selfish gain. Instead of reestablishing the order as the government officials predicted, it created more chaos than before including, violence and extreme conditions of poverty. Zimbabwe was only able to acquire 3 million hectares (7.41 million acres) for black resettlement, well short of its intended target of 8 million hectares (19.77 million acres). Land reforms need not be as dramatic in scale as Zimbabwe. My topics about Africa focuses on an aid-free Africa relying on trade, tourism, innovation, and technology. Most importantly, this shows why it is important to think about the capacity of the population when implementing policies. According to Sen, any kind of development plan should be implemented in the way that reduces poverty by creating more economic opportunities as well as involving some kind of negotiation and collaboration with the population. Most coverage of Zimbabwe’s land reform insists that agricultural production has almost totally collapsed, that food insecurity is rife, that rural economies are in precipitous decline and that farm labour has all been displaced. Ultimately a deal was struck that the new government would not embark on any land reforms in the first decade in power. (Moyo p.311-30) Hence, Zimbabwe is not a preferred recipient of funds from Western financial institutions. Potts briefly discussed Zimbabwean economic history where she acknowledges Zimbabwe as one of the most economically stable countries in sub-Saharan Africa with only 25 to 30 % of people below the poverty line in the early 1990s. Land Reform in the Twenty Years After Independence. The Government of Zimbabwe was not discouraged by the unfavourable outcome of the Donors Conference. The politics of land reform. The compensation agreement signed in July agreed a total amount of US$3.5 billion to pay for ‘improvements’ to the land that was expropriated. This in effect was the beginning of Zimbabwe’s land problem. I was born and raised in Rwanda. It covers a real examination of land reform in Zimbabwe - specifically as Masvingo province, which experienced the greatest land reform in the country - conducted by Ian Scoones of the University of Sussex. Thereafter, embittered war veterans began to invade European settler-farms in earnest. Originally, this policy was not a bad one, but the conditions and the process in which it was executed had extremely bad consequences not only on the policy makers, and the people, but also the whole country in general. BACKGROUND. By eliminating illegal housing and informal jobs in the capital of the country, Harare, the government of Zimbabwe thought that it would restore the order in their city. There were persistent shortages of hard and fiat currency, fuel, medicine, and food. Many former supporters of the nationalist movements felt that the promises of Nkomo and Mugabe with regards to the land had not be… 273-291,  Raftopulos, Brian, “The Zimbabwean Crisis and the Challenges for the Left, Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. Didier Champion is a Rwandan blogger. The other alternative by which the acquisition could be legally done was, of course, through the introduction of a completely new Zimbabwe Constitution and, that became the alternative the Government preferred. Indeed, he argues that inequality is basis of famines and other severe crises. Planned Growth: Land reforms will enable to bring about a close integration of agricultural economy with the planning process of the country. From 2005, the city adopted the “Kigali master plan”, which is a planning scheme to transform Kigali into a modern technological city. In 2000, a large amount of land owned by the minority of white commercial farmers was settled to approximately hundreds of thousands of black Zimbabweans who lacked experience and professionalism in farming. For more, follow me on twitter and follow this blog to stay in touch. 32, No. My thougts about Rwanda and Africa today and tomorrow. This will facilitate the government to implement plan for agricultural development in a smooth manner. People’s homes were destroyed without fair compensation and they were forced to move into rural areas. Zimbabwe agrarian reform brought about the stand-off between the once darlings in international trade and investments. However, most importantly, a set of these policies have negatively affected the economy of Zimbabwe at the point where unemployment rate was 80% and hyperinflation that resulted in the abandonment of the Zimbabwean currency in 2009 (217). land is the slogan encouraging land reform in Zimbabwe (Mugabe, 2001). In most cases, these policies were established to punish areas where MDC had a lot of supporters. They found ready allies in the rural African peasants, who, desperate for land to settle on, demanded ‘restitution of ancestral lands.’ (Scoones et al, 2010: p.22) Raftopoulos and Potts did a good job at explaining and clarifying reasons for the crisis of Zimbabwe through the evidence of their work and their research on operation Murambatsvina. Currently, Rwanda is also dealing with this problem, but so far the process has been excessively successful. The true position is that dsanctions were imposed by the EU when the head of the last European Union observer mission, Pierre Schori, was thrown out of Zimbabwe in 2002 on the eve of presidential elections that were condemned as flawed. (The Herald, March 11 2000 p.1) The root causes of the crisis which led to the Fast Track Land Reform Programme from April 2000 up until 2010 lay in the failure of the1998 Donors Conference to assist the Zimbabwe Land Reform Programme; the British Government’s insistence on the willing-buyer-willing-seller principle of Land Reform as well as the rejection of the draft Constitution during the referendum, writes Dr Felix Muchemwa in his book The Struggle for Land in Zimbabwe (1890-2010) that The Patriot is serialising. Decades of human rights abuses and impunity have diminished political participation by citizens and civil society, and shaped a risk averse and fearful citizenry. (Stiff, 2000: 310) According to the World Bank and IMF, from 2000 to 2007, the national economy of Zimbabwe contracted by as much as 40% and inflation was extremely high. View more posts, Hello. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. (The Herald, March 1 2000 p.1). Zimbabwe provides a compelling case study of the perils of ignoring the rule of law and property rights when implementing land reforms. Reform and Resettlement Programme: April 2000 Clearly, Sen would criticize the Zimbabwean policy makers since they claimed to establish development by increasing poverty and diminishing the opportunities to the majority. This policy was a major reason that led to unchanged land situation in post-independence Zimbabwe. Therefore, the government established “Operation Murambatsvina” in order to solve disorder in the cities by focusing on focusing on illegal housing, and informal jobs. This resulted in a crisis where nearly 700, 000 people lost the basis of their livelihood: either their jobs, homes, or both. This early land reform produced a rather feudal form of politics based on racial and class discrimination imposed on the African population by the British government and white Rhodesians.5 Also, tribal traditions present no form of property rights as understood by Western culture. Perhaps, Zimbabwe should have adopted the method that Rwanda is currently using to organize Kigali, the capital of Rwanda into a modern technological city. To a large extent, the unemployed youth phenomenon effectively turned the vote against the Draft Constitution. You have entered an incorrect email address! Among other reasons, the land reform lacked adequate government financial support, the new and inexperienced farmers failed to feed the nation, and the land question created enmity from the international community, which turned Zimbabwe into a pariah state. The Tribunal held that the Zimbabwe government violated the organisation’s treaty by denying access to the courts and engaging in racial discrimination against white farmers whose farms had been confiscated under the land reform programme in Zimbabwe. In his paper, “The Zimbabwean Crisis and the Challenges for the Left”, published in the Journal of Southern African studies, Brian Raftopoulos analyzed the Zimbabwean crisis by setting up and combining historical aspects of land distribution from the 1980’s from various authors to show how the authoritarian regime of Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe, has played a major role in implementing policies that ravaged the economic growth of Zimbabwe since its independence. Changes in human capability, spread of agricultural education and introduction of democratic practice in rural society etc are extremely important indicators of the success of land reforms. In the early 1980s land, was acquired by the government and a wide range of infrastructure and support services were provided to the schemes. The land reform in Zimbabwe was organised in line with that slogan and had the following basic elements of speed, which made it to be known as the ‘fast track’ land reform. The peasants began occupying white settler-farms in a countrywide ‘jambanja’ or ‘invasion’. The RBZ report on land reform of 2006 indicates that from 2001 financial assistance from the World Bank,IMF and AfDB were suspended and the US through ZIDERA committed itself to vote against any lines of credit towards Zimbabwe. The new Constitution alternative and the 2000 Referendum Land reforms can establish a direct link between Government and farmers by abolishing intermediaries. Indeed, I will suggest a comparative approach of confronting this issue using the example of Rwanda where the similar policy seems to have worked. Zimbabwe’s experiences with land reform are of particular significance to other countries in the region like South Africa and Namibia. Indeed, the GDP per capita dropped by 40%, agricultural output dropped by 51% and industrial production dropped by 47% (Potts, 287). ( Log Out / This is because through education, the population understands why the city needs to be modernized: attracting foreign businesses and investors for the stable development of the country. Therefore, these farmers could not maintain the intensive and industrialized farming of the white owners. Zimbabwe received financial assistance for land reform during the 1980s and 1990s from various governments. An Africa that consumes what It produces & produces what it consumes. Raftopoulos points out that because of its influence of the ruling party in the liberation struggle that lead to the independence of Zimbabwe in the 1980’s, ZANU PF, has used that pride to represent itself as the only protector of “national interest, patriotism, and authenticity” (212). (The Herald, March 17 2000 p.1) Amartya Sen is an economist who won the Nobel Prize in 1998 for his contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society’s poorest members. Some very credible research has shown that land reform has improved food production and food security for smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. Of interest is the fact that of the 697 754 ‘No’ votes, 405 243 were cast in the main cities of Harare, Bulawayo, Gweru, Mutare, Masvingo, Chinhoyi, Chegutu, Kadoma and Kwekwe where a high number of unemployed youths and domestic workers were easily mobilised by European settler-employers. Zimbabwe is not the only country that has recently had to deal with urban land reform. At the beginning in the 1990s, when people were moved into towns of Harare, the capital city, the government did not stop the migration or ban the construction of illegal houses and illegal jobs, which means it wasn’t people’s fault. In order to do make this possible, private companies buy land to the government, and then, the government negotiates with the population on the prices of their property to receive compensation according to current costs of materials and labor. I have checked your didierchampion.com and i see you’ve got some duplicate content so (Moyo p.150) According to Sen, in order to achieve of development; there must be the removal of the following: poverty, tyranny, and lack of economic opportunities, social deprivation, neglect of public services, and the machinery of repression. The CFU to announce the eviction orders on radio for three consecutive days has been successful! 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