The Lower Rhine flows through North Rhine-Westphalia. The Rhine River shows considerable pollution with microplastics (Mani et al., 2015, Mani and Burkhardt-Holm, 2020. Large cities that are situated on the Rhine: Smaller cities that are situated on the Rhine: During its course from the Alps to the North Sea, the Rhine passes through four countries and constitutes six different country borders. Rhine Valley: Driving along the Rhine riverside - See 308 traveler reviews, 553 candid photos, and great deals for Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, at Tripadvisor. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The northern part forms the border between the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate in the west on the one hand, and Baden-Württemberg and Hesse on the other hand, in the east and north. It descends from 395 m to 252 m. Some stretches of the High Rhine between Stein am Rhein and Eglisau form the border between Switzerland on the south bank and Germany in the north. Three more flows carry significant amounts of water: the Nieuwe Merwede ("New Merwede"), which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from Boven to Beneden Merwede; the Oude Maas ("Old Meuse"), which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from Beneden Merwede into Noord, and Dordtse Kil, which branches off from Oude Maas. Cruise down Rhine River - Koblenz to Mainz. In northern Europe, the North Sea Basin had formed during the Triassic and Jurassic periods and continued to be a sediment receiving basin since. In addition, were a double legion, XIV and XVI, at Moguntiacum (Mainz). Group tariffs are available on KD Rhine River excursions for groups of at least 10 paying passengers. By 9000 BP, Europe was fully forested. (The Hinterrhein rises about five miles west of San Bernardino Pass, near the Swiss–Italian border, and is joined by the Albula River below Thusis.) April 3 October 2010. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. This branch once formed the line along which the Limes Germanicus were built. About 11000 years ago, the Rhine estuary was in the Strait of Dover. There are more castles along the Rhine than any other river in the world. At about 180 MBP, in the Jurassic Period, the two plates reversed direction and began to compress the Tethys floor, causing it to be subducted under Eurasia and pushing up the edge of the latter plate in the Alpine Orogeny of the Oligocene and Miocene Periods. In northwest Europe, it saw two very cold phases, peaking around 70,000 BP and around 29,000–24,000 BP. Near Sils the Posterior Rhine is joined by the Albula, from the east, from the Albula Pass region. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. Of this phenomenon the Rhine is a classic example. The large sediment loads are partly due to the extensive land improvements upstream. Rhine River - Rhine River - Hydrology: The Alpine Rhine—with its steep gradient, high runoff coefficient (80 percent of the precipitation in its catchment area), pronounced winter minimum, high water in spring from snowmelt, and high early summer maximum resulting from heavy summer rains—has a characteristic Alpine regime. There is some debate as to whether this river would have flowed southwest into what is now the English Channel, or flowed north, emerging into the North Sea close to modern Yorkshire. The river was long a source of political dissension in Europe, but this has given way to international concern for ecological safeguards as pollution levels have risen; some 6,000 toxic substances have been identified in Rhine waters. Reichenau Island was formed at the same time as the Seerhein, when the water level was lowered to its current level. The middle flow begins as Nederrijn, then changes into Lek, then joins the Noord, thereby forming Nieuwe Maas. Posted by Tom. It is here that the Rhine encounters some more of its main tributaries, such as the Neckar, the Main and, later, the Moselle, which contributes an average discharge of more than 300 m3/s (11,000 cu ft/s). 1050-1350)-language text, Articles containing Palatine German-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2011, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Starting from the Swiss town of Basel, the river flows for 435 miles through Germany, past France and eventually to the Netherlands, where it spills out into the North Sea. Northeastern France drains to the Rhine via the Moselle; smaller rivers drain the Vosges and Jura Mountains uplands. Rhine River, German Rhein, French Rhin, Dutch Rijn, Celtic Renos, Latin Rhenus, river and waterway of western Europe, culturally and historically one of the great rivers of the continent and among the most important arteries of industrial transport in the world. At the Waal, for example, the most landward tidal influence can be detected between Brakel and Zaltbommel. The Lower Rhine falls from 50 m to 12 m. The main tributaries on this stretch are the Ruhr and the Lippe. The Rhine leaves the lake via its Untersee arm. It is one of Europe’s busiest waterways, serving a densely populated region with many natural resources and industries.  The engineering of the Rhine was not without protest, farmers and fishermen had grave concerns about valuable fishing areas and farmland being lost. Author of. Rhine cruises. the geography and geology of its present-day watershed has been developing since the Alpine orogeny began. The Upper Rhine had been part of the areal of the late Hallstatt culture since the 6th century BC, and by the 1st century BC, the areal of the La Tène culture covered almost its entire length, forming a contact zone with the Jastorf culture, i.e. Posted Jan 23, 2020. 2002. The hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta's main arms, disconnected arms (Hollandse IJssel, Linge, Vecht, etc.) Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Loess (wind-blown topsoil dust) arose from the south and North Sea plain settling on the slopes of the Alps, Urals and the Rhine Valley, rendering the valleys facing the prevailing winds especially fertile. But then, at the so-called Rheinbrech, the Rhine water abruptly falls into the depths because of the greater density of cold water. In the centre of Basel, the first major city in the course of the stream, is located the "Rhine knee"; this is a major bend, where the overall direction of the Rhine changes from west to north. The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. Among the largest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam, Strasbourg and Basel. The Rhine is an International River which includes 6 countries: Switzerland, … The Upper Rhine region was changed significantly by a Rhine straightening program in the 19th Century. The Gaulish name Rēnos (Proto-Celtic or pre-Celtic[note 5] *Reinos) belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, flow, run", also found in other names such as the Reno in Italy. Köln-Düsseldorfer (KD) has the largest number of boats on the Rhine River and many cruises through the lovely Loreley Valley. A curiosity of this border line is that the parts of the city of Mainz on the right bank of the Rhine were given to Hesse by the occupying forces in 1945. 450-1100)-language text, Articles containing Romansh-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Transalpine Gaulish-language text, Articles containing Old High German (ca. the Middle Rhine flows entirely within Germany. 2015, among others, rivers such as the Rhine are to be not only clean, but also ecologically intact. But it didn't used to be that way. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Avers Rhine joins from the south. In this flat-floored section the Rhine has been straightened and the banks reinforced to prevent flooding. One source is Lai da Tuma (2,345 m (7,694 ft)) with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Updates? We really had to get together and clean it up and keep it clean. Cruising down the Rhine is a trip that’s better to take during warmer seasons, in order to enjoy the region at its best. the total discharge of the Rhine is subject to significant fluctuations, and average values cited vary between sources; the total discharge taken into account here consists of: The Rhine only has an official length scale (, The Rhine is cited as the "twelfth-longest river of Europe", The Rhine was not known in the Hellenistic period. Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing into the open Seeztal valley and then through Lake Walen and Lake Zurich into the Aare. There remained some dry land in the southern North Sea, known as Doggerland, connecting mainland Europe to Britain. The Rhine River is a popular river. The Vorderrhein emerges from Lake Toma at 7,690 feet (2,344 metres), near the Oberalp Pass in the Central Alps, and then flows eastward past Disentis to be joined by the Hinterrhein from the south at Reichenau above Chur. The city of Laufenburg on the Rhine River in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The compression and orogeny continue today, as shown by the ongoing raising of the mountains a small amount each year and the active volcanoes. Not far away from Emmerich the river is approaching the Netherlands. Traveling along and on the Rhine River has long been popular. While it was slightly modified during the Roman occupation, it was not until the emergence of engineers such as Johann Gottfried Tulla that significant modernization efforts changed the shape of the river. The northern section of this frontier, where the Rhine is deep and broad, remained the Roman boundary until the empire fell. Specifically, its shorelines lie in the German states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, the Austrian state of Vorarlberg, and the Swiss cantons of Thurgau and St. Gallen. The Rhine flows into it from the south following the Swiss-Austrian border. From Bonn the Rhein (Rhine) river bears the name Unterrhein (Underrhine) and forms from Emmerich together with the Meuse a distinctive mouth delta of which the river Waal is the main arm. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian, Occitan and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. Night view of Cologne, Germany, on the Rhine River. The watershed of the Rhine reaches into the Alps today, but it did not start out that way. Since the Peace of Westphalia, the Upper Rhine formed a contentious border between France and Germany. Pick a cruise length. The High Rhine begins in Stein am Rhein at the western end of the Untersee. While the Rhine is over 800 miles long, the 36-mile stretch from Mainz to Koblenz is by far the most interesting. 52, Cioc, Mark. The Rhine bridge at Arnhem, immortalized in the book, A Bridge Too Far and the film, was a central focus of the battle for Arnhem, during the failed Operation Market Garden of September 1944. Between Emmerich and Cleves the Emmerich Rhine Bridge, the longest suspension bridge in Germany, crosses the 400-metre-wide (1,300 ft) river. Basel: Disembark in the city with a wealth of galleries, museums and architecturally wonderful buildings. Its catchment area, including the delta area, exceeds 85,000 square miles (220,000 square km). River Cruises. It runs for over 1,232 km (766 mi) from its source in the in the Swiss Alps (in Switzerland), … Near Sankt Goarshausen, the Rhine flows around the famous rock Lorelei. Rhine Falls, on the upper Rhine River near Schaffhausen, Switzerland. One of its headwaters, the Reno di Lei (stowed in the Lago di Lei), is partially located in Italy. For a time, the Rhine ceased to be a border, when the Franks crossed the river and occupied Roman-dominated Celtic Gaul, as far as Paris. It flows farther west, to rejoin the Noord into the Nieuwe Maas and to the North Sea. The Rhine River Falls is found on a stretch of the Rhine River known as the High Rhine. In southern Europe, the stage was set in the Triassic Period of the Mesozoic Era, with the opening of the Tethys Ocean, between the Eurasian and African tectonic plates, between about 240 MBP and 220 MBP (million years before present). It is located at approximately 47°39′N 9°19′E / 47.650°N 9.317°E / 47.650; 9.317. Depending on the water level, this flow of the Rhine water is clearly visible along the entire length of the lake. 750-1050)-language text, Articles containing Middle Dutch (ca. The cold water flows near the surface and at first doesn't mix with the warmer, green waters of Upper Lake. For most of its length, the Seerhein forms the border between Germany and Switzerland. Spend three hours floating along the Rhine River, savoring delicious regional cuisine and listening to music spun by a live DJ. The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, too, and it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. The river is … After a leisurely breakfast, head to the local Tourist Office (on Market Square) … We would prefer to drive along the Rhine River versus taking a Rhine River Cruise. The length of the Rhine was long given as 820 miles (1,320 km), but in 2010 a shorter distance of about 765 miles (1,230 km) was proposed. The section is marked by Rhine-kilometers 0 to 165, measurements beginning at the outflow of the Obersee at the Old Rhine Bridge in Constance. The error was discovered in 2010, and the Dutch Rijkswaterstaat confirms the length at 1,232 kilometres (766 miles). but in the 10th century, it was fully within the Holy Roman Empire, flowing through Swabia, Franconia and Lower Lorraine. Coeval absolute sea-level rise and tectonic subsidence have strongly influenced delta evolution. The Mittelrhein is the part of the Rhine Valley between Rüdesheim / Bingen and Koblenz. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  This has caused increased flooding and sedimentation, ending peat formation in the delta. It is 820 miles long. The Alsace on the left banks of the Upper Rhine was sold to Burgundy by Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1469 and eventually fell to France in the Thirty Years' War. An easy way to start your romantic day on the Rhine: Present your KD ticket onboard any KD ship and enjoy all scheduled day cruises on the Rhine and Moselle rivers for one whole day. The southern half of the Upper Rhine forms the border between France (Alsace) and Germany (Baden-Württemberg). Also, should we reserve ahead of time since we have a particular day in mind? Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. The average death on the Rhine is only 9 feet. And the best way to see it is to cruise it. From here, the situation becomes more complicated, as the Dutch name Rijn no longer coincides with the main flow of water. The river Rhine is Western Europe's most important waterway. The northern Alps were then drained by the Rhone. About 7000–5000 BP, a general warming encouraged migration of all former ice-locked areas, including up the Danube and down the Rhine by peoples to the east. So, if you happen to be visiting Europe anytime soon, make sure to check out one of the most important and fun rivers in … The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. The longer cruises typically include cruising other waterways such as the Danube or Main Rivers. This is a long day but very easy going. Examples: Next to Reichenau in Tamins the Anterior Rhine and the Posterior Rhine join and form the Alpine Rhine. As it approaches the Dutch border, the Rhine has an annual mean discharge of 2,290 m3/s (81,000 cu ft/s) and an average width of 400 m (1,300 ft). Major tributaries in this section are the Lahn and the Moselle. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. One of the most important cities in this region is Duisburg with the largest river port in Europe (Duisport). If you need a reason to visit, the UNESCO World Heritage website has described the area’s beauty well: “The Rhine is one of the world's great rivers and has witnessed many crucial events in human history. The actual number of legions present at any base or in all, depended on whether a state or threat of war existed. The construction of Delta Works changed the Delta in the second half of the 20th Century fundamentally. Day 6 – Rust to Rastatt – 64 miles We quickly return to France by means of a small ferry and pick up the Canal Du Rhine once again, following all the way to (and through) Strasbourg. Step 2. The Rhine is the longest river in Germany. Not long before Tulla went to work on widening and straightening the river heavy floods had brought significant loss of life. With the completion of the huge Delta Project in 1986—constructed to prevent flooding in the southwestern coastal area of the Netherlands—all main branches of the Rhine were closed off; sluices and lateral channels now allow river water to reach the sea. The fact that cheap water transport on the Rhine helped to keep prices of raw materials down was the main reason the river became a major axis of industrial production: one-fifth of the world’s chemical industries are now manufacturing along the Rhine. The last phase slightly predates the global last ice age maximum (Last Glacial Maximum). A small fraction of the flow is diverted off the island of Mainau into Lake Überlingen. Discussion of castles along the Rhine River, with a look at their upkeep. Early engineering projects the Upper Rhine also had issues, with Tulla's project at one part of the river creating rapids, after the Rhine cut down from erosion to sheer rock. Until the straightening of the upper Rhine, which began in the early 19th century, the river described a series of great loops, or meanders, over its floodplain, and today their remnants, the old backwaters and cutoffs near Breisach and Karlsruhe, mark the former course of the river. The present Mediterranean Sea descends from this somewhat larger Tethys sea. For flood protection reasons, the Meuse was separated from the Waal through a lock and diverted into a new outlet called "Bergse Maas", then Amer and then flows into the former bay Hollands Diep. The river Rhine is Western Europe's most important waterway. After the lake, ... Gerd's passion for photography runs back in his family for a long time. The Rhine has been navigable between Basel and Rheinfelden since 1934. This system of numerous bays, estuary-like extended rivers, many islands and constant changes of the coastline, is hard to imagine today. Duisburg is the home of Europe's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of Rotterdam, Antwerp and Amsterdam. The Rhine is 1,320 kilometer (820 miles) long but the best part is the Mittelrhein (Middle Rhine). Since approximately 600,000 years ago, six major Ice Ages have occurred, in which sea level dropped 120 m (390 ft) and much of the continental margins became exposed. Can someone please give us suggestions on coming from Frankfurt airport to drive along the Rhine and then crossing over to the other side to end up in Bacharach. The implementation of measures according to the WFd in the EU member States along the Rhine has at the same time brought about progress for the programme „Rhine 2020“. At Andernach, where the ancient Roman frontier left the Rhine, the basaltic Seven Hills rise steeply to the east of the river, where, as the English poet Lord Byron put it, “the castle crag of Dachenfels frowns o’er the wide and winding Rhine.”. The natural Rhine originally branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments. The Rhine forms the eastern boundary of France for some 118 miles (190 km). The source of the river is generally considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is actually longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. A Rhine river cruise gives you the chance to get under the skin of not only one country but Europe as a whole. With globally shrinking ice-cover, ocean water levels rose and the English Channel and North Sea re-inundated. The gorge is quite deep and is the stretch of the river which is known for its many castles and vineyards. At this time, the plain of the Lower Rhine was the territory of the Ubii. The whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichenau in Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana.. 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